1. 마다의 의미와 사용법
마다 has two primary meanings when used in sentences. The first meaning is to indicate that an action or state expressed in the sentence applies to every item or person in a group. For example, “강아지마다 귀여워요” (Gangajimada gwiyeowoyo) means “Every dog is cute.” Here, 마다 emphasizes that the statement applies to all dogs.
The second meaning of 마다 is used to express that a certain action or state occurs repeatedly or consistently over a period of time. For instance, “매일 밥을 먹을 때마다 음악을 들어요” (Maeil bab-eul meogeul ttaemada eumak-eul deureoyo) translates to “Every time I eat, I listen to music.” In this sentence, 마다 indicates that the action of listening to music happens consistently every time the speaker eats.
마다 is typically placed after the noun it modifies. For instance, “친구마다 성격이 다르다” (Chingumada seonggyeok-i dareuda) means “Each friend has a different personality.” Here, 마다 follows the noun “친구” (chingu), emphasizing that each friend possesses a distinct personality.
마다 can be used in various types of sentences, including declarative, interrogative, and imperative sentences. For example, “각자가 특징이 많은 동물 마다 무엇인가요?” (Gakjaga teukjing-i maneun dongmul mada mueosingayo?) translates to “What are some animals where each has many characteristics?” Here, 마다 is used in an interrogative sentence to ask about animals with multiple attributes.
2. 주어와 마다의 수 관계
When using 마다, it is essential to maintain agreement between the subject and the noun that follows 마다. This means that if the subject is singular, the noun after 마다 should be singular as well. Conversely, if the subject is plural, the noun after 마다 should also be plural.
For instance, if the subject is singular, we use 마다 with a singular noun. “한 사람마다 기념품을 받았어요” (Han sarammada ginyeom-pum-eul badasseoyo) means “Each person received a souvenir.” Here, the plural noun “기념품” (ginyeom-pum) agrees with the singular subject “한 사람” (han saram).
Similarly, if the subject is plural, 마다 should be followed by a plural noun. “우리 가족마다 선물을 줬어요” (Uri gajokmada seonmul-eul jwosseoyo) translates to “We gave presents to each family.” In this sentence, the plural noun “가족” (gajok) matches the plural subject “우리” (uri).
There are some exceptions to the rule of subject-noun agreement when using 마다. In certain cases, nouns without specific quantities or singular nouns representing a group of items can be used after 마다. Examples of this exception include “팀마다 선수들을 선택했어요” (Tim mada seonsudeul-eul seontaekhaesseoyo), which means “They chose players for each team.”
3. 마다의 위치와 문장 구조
The placement of 마다 in a sentence can impact the meaning and emphasis of the sentence. When 마다 is placed before the subject, it emphasizes the subject and emphasizes that it is “each” or “every.” When 마다 follows the subject, it emphasizes the verb or action taking place.
For example, “매일 저녁마다 음악을 들어요” (Mae-il jeonyeokmada eumak-eul deureoyo) can be translated to “I listen to music every evening.” Here, 매일 저녁 (mae-il jeonyeok) means “every evening,” and 마다 emphasizes that the action of listening to music occurs consistently every evening.
마다 can be placed at various positions within a sentence, including at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end. However, it is more common for 마다 to be placed after the noun it modifies. For example, “여러가지 자전거마다 다양한 색상이 있어요” (Yeoreogaji jajeongeomada dayanghan saeksang-i isseoyo) means “Different bikes have various colors.” Here, 마다 follows the noun “자전거” (jajeongeo), indicating that each bike possesses its own set of colors.
마다 can also be used to emphasize the topic of a sentence. For instance, “친구들마다 선물을 줄 거예요” (Chingudeulmada seonmul-eul jul geoyeyo) means “I will give presents to each friend.” Here, 마다 emphasizes the friends as a collective group, and the action of giving presents is specified.
4. 마다와 함께 사용되는 시간 표현
마다 is commonly used in conjunction with time expressions to indicate the frequency or regularity of an action. Here are some examples of how 마다 can be used with different types of time expressions:
– 특정 시간과 함께 마다 사용 (Using 마다 with specific time expressions): 매주 일요일마다 만납니다 (Maeju il-yoil-mada mannamnida) translates to “We meet every Sunday.” In this sentence, 매주 (maeju) means “every week,” and 마다 emphasizes the action of meeting consistently each week.
– 주기적인 시간과 함께 마다 사용 (Using 마다 with periodic time expressions): 매달 첫째 주마다 새로운 이벤트가 열립니다 (Maedal cheotjjae mada saeroun ibenteu-ga yeollibnida) means “A new event opens every first week of the month.” In this sentence, 매달 (maedal) means “every month,” and 마다 emphasizes that a new event consistently takes place.
– 시간의 순서와 함께 마다 사용 (Using 마다 with chronological time expressions): 첫 번째부터 다섯 번째까지의 순서대로 매번 번호를 불러주세요 (Cheot beonjaebuteo daseotbeonjae-kkaji-ui sunseodaero maebeon beonho-reul bulleo juseyo) translates to “Please call out the numbers in order from the first to the fifth every time.” Here, the phrase “첫 번째부터 다섯 번째까지의 순서대로” (cheot beonjaebuteo daseotbeonjae-kkaji-ui sunseodaero) means “in order from the first to the fifth,” and 마다 emphasizes that the action of calling numbers in order happens every time.
5. 마다와 함께 사용되는 수량 표현
마다 can also be used with quantity expressions to indicate that something occurs or applies to a certain quantity or amount. Here are some examples of how 마다 can be used with different types of quantity expressions:
– 구체적 수량과 함께 마다 사용 (Using 마다 with specific quantity expressions): 세 명씩 마다 한 개의 책을 받아요 (Se myeongssik mada han gae-ui chaeg-eul badayo) means “Each group of three receives one book.” In this sentence, 세 명씩 (se myeongssik) means “each group of three,” and 마다 emphasizes that each group of three receives one book.
– 추상적 수량과 함께 마다 사용 (Using 마다 with abstract quantity expressions): 글자마다 뜻이 다르다 (Geuljamada deus-i dareuda) translates to “Each character has a different meaning.” Here, 글자마다 (geuljamada) means “each character,” and 마다 emphasizes that each character possesses its own unique meaning.
– 수량의 정밀성과 함께 마다 사용 (Using 마다 with precision in quantity): 오차는 소수점 넷째 자리마다 출력되어야 합니다 (Ochaneun sosujeom nettae jari-mada chul-lyeodeoya hamnida) means “The error should be displayed to the fourth decimal place.” Here, 소수점 넷째 자리마다 (sosujeom nettae jari-mada) means “to the fourth decimal place,” and 마다 emphasizes the need for precision in each decimal place.
6. 마다의 의미 확장과 관용 표현
In addition to its basic meaning and usages, 마다 can be extended in meaning and used in various idiomatic expressions. Here are some examples:
– 마다의 의미를 확장한 표현과 사용법 (Expressions that extend the meaning of 마다):
– 당장이라도 가고 싶은 곳이 많아서 눈마다 감을 수가 없어요 (Dangjang-ilado gago sip-eun gos-i manhaseo nunmada gam-eul suga eobs-eoyo) means “I can’t close my eyes because there are so many places I want to go right away.” Here, 눈마다 (nunmada) means “each eye” and extends the meaning to emphasize an overwhelming desire to go to many places.
– 마다가 사용되는 관용 표현과 예시 (Idiomatic expressions using 마다):
– 예쁜 척하는 아이들마다 따로 훈련 받아야 해요 (Yeppeun cheokhaneun aideulmada ttaro hunlyeon badaya haeyo) means “Each child who pretends to be pretty needs separate training.” Here, 아이들마다 (aideulmada) means “each child” and is used to imply that training is required for every child who pretends to be pretty.
– 마다를 사용하여 감정, 성질, 특징 등을 나타내는 방법 (Using 마다 to express emotions, qualities, characteristics, etc.):
– 소녀마다 다른 꿈과 희망을 가지고 있어요 (Sonyeomada dareun kkumgwa huimang-eul gajigo isseoyo) means “Every girl has different dreams and hopes.” Here, 소녀마다 (sonyeomada) means “each girl” and highlights the individuality of each girl’s dreams and hopes.
In conclusion, 마다 is a versatile grammar point in Korean that allows speakers to express the idea of “every”, “each”, or “per” in a variety of ways. By understanding the meaning and usage of 마다 and its various applications, learners can effectively convey the frequency, regularity, and quantity associated with actions, as well as emphasize specific topics or qualities. So, don’t hesitate to use 마다 to enhance your Korean language skills and express yourself more precisely and creatively.
1. How do I know when to use 마다 in a sentence?
마다 is used to express that something applies to every item or person in a group, or that something occurs consistently or repeatedly. If you want to emphasize universality, regularity, or consistency in your sentence, 마다 can be a good choice.
2. Should the noun that follows 마다 always be plural?
No, the noun following 마다 should agree with the subject. If the subject is singular, the noun should be singular as well. If the subject is plural, the noun should be plural too. However, there are exceptions when nouns without specific quantities or singular nouns representing a group of items can be used after 마다.
3. Can 마다 be used at the beginning of a sentence?
Yes, 마다 can be placed at various positions within a sentence, including at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end. However, it is more common for 마다 to be placed after the noun it modifies.
4. Can 마다 be used with time and quantity expressions?
Yes, 마다 can be used with time and quantity expressions to indicate the frequency, regularity, or quantity of an action. It can be used with specific time expressions, periodic time expressions, chronological time expressions, as well as specific and abstract quantity expressions.
5. Are there any idiomatic expressions that use 마다?
Yes, 마다 can be extended in meaning and used in various idiomatic expressions. Some examples include “눈마다 감을 수가 없어요” (I can’t close my eyes) and “아이들마다 훈련 받아야 해요” (Each child needs training). These expressions use 마다 to emphasize certain feelings, actions, or qualities.
사용자가 검색한 키워드: 마다 grammar 마다 meaning, 기 전에 grammar, 아/어야 하다 grammar, 는 게 어때요 grammar, 기로 하다 grammar, 거나 grammar, 매 grammar, 보다 grammar
Categories: Top 96 마다 Grammar
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마다 is typically attached to a noun or pronoun and is used to indicate that something applies to every individual or item in a given group or category. It effectively emphasizes the concept of distribution or spreading evenly among the elements mentioned. Let’s explore the various ways in which 마다 can be used.
– Expressing “each” or “every”:
When used in this context, 마다 emphasizes the idea of “one by one” or “individually.” For example, 매일마다 (mae-il-ma-da) means “every day,” emphasizing that an action or event occurs on a daily basis. Similarly, 매년마다 (mae-nyeon-ma-da) translates to “every year,” pointing out that something happens annually. In these cases, 마다 provides precision and clarity about the frequency or occurrence of an action.
– Describing equal distribution or uniformity:
마다 can also indicate that something is distributed or divided evenly among certain individuals or objects. For instance, 한국 사람마다 (han-guk-sa-ram-ma-da) means “each Korean person” or “every Korean person.” Here, 마다 suggests that a statement or action applies uniformly to every person in the given group.
– Proportional distribution or rate per unit:
In some cases, 마다 expresses a proportion or rate per unit. For example, 시간당 10,000원마다 (shi-gan-dang 10,000-won-ma-da) translates to “10,000 won per hour.” This usage conveys the message that a specified amount or quantity applies to every hour.
– Indicating a fixed amount:
Sometimes, 마다 is used to express a fixed or specific amount per item or unit. For instance, 반복마다 (ban-bok-ma-da) means “each repetition.” This usage focuses on the occurrence of a particular action every time it is repeated.
Q: Can 마다 be used with verbs?
A: No, 마다 is a particle that is normally attached to a noun or pronoun. It does not directly modify verbs.
Q: How is 마다 different from 별로 and 각각?
A: While 마다 emphasizes the distribution or occurrence of something among all the elements mentioned, 별로 (byeol-ro) places emphasis on the individuality or uniqueness of each element. On the other hand, 각각 (gak-gak) is used to indicate “each” or “every” in a more general sense, without necessarily emphasizing distribution or division.
Q: Are there any exceptions or irregularities in using 마다?
A: Yes, there are a few exceptions to keep in mind. For example, when 마다 is attached to a noun ending in ㅂ (b) or 울 (wool), the ㅂ (b) and 울 (wool) undergo a sound change. Instead of 마다, it becomes 밖에 (bak-ke) or 별로 (byeol-ro), respectively. Another point to remember is that 마다 is typically used with countable nouns. For uncountable or abstract nouns, the particle 별 (byeol) might be more suitable.
Q: Can 마다 be used to express a negative meaning?
A: No, 마다 is generally neutral in meaning and does not inherently express positivity or negativity. Its function is primarily to emphasize distribution, uniformity, or occurrence.
In conclusion, 마다 is a versatile particle in Korean that expresses the meaning of “each,” “every,” or “per.” It serves to highlight distribution or uniformity among elements in a group and indicates a fixed or proportional amount. Understanding the correct usage of 마다 is crucial for effective communication, ensuring clarity and precision in conveying information.
기 전에 Grammar
기 전에 is composed of three parts: 기 (gi), 전에 (jeone), and 이. 기 (gi) is the nominalizer that turns verbs into nouns, 전에 (jeone) means “before,” and 이 (i) is a connective particle that attaches the noun formed from the verb to 전에 (jeone). When combined, these parts create the meaning of “before doing something.”
The structure of a sentence using 기 전에 is as follows: [Verb-stem + 기] + [전에 + 이다].
Let’s break down the components of a 기 전에 sentence using the verb “먹다” (to eat):
먹다 (to eat) -> 먹 (verb stem) -> [먹기] (to eat + 기)
[먹기] (to eat) + 전에 (before) + 이다 (to be)
So, “before eating” in Korean is “먹기 전에” (meokgi jeone).
It’s important to note that 기 전에 grammar only applies to actions or states, not to objects or subjects. To express the subject performing the action, you need to use the particle 가/이/을/를 (ga/i/reul) after the verb stem.
– I will meet my friend before eating lunch.
점심을 먹기 전에 친구를 만날 거예요. (jeomsimeul meokgi jeone chingureul mannal geoyeyo)
In this sentence, “I” is the subject, “lunch” is the object connected with the particle 을 (reul), “to eat” is the verb, and “before” is expressed using 기 전에.
기 전에 grammar can also be used with adjectives or descriptive verbs by omitting the 기 (gi) part. For example:
– I will buy groceries before it gets dark.
어두워지기 전에 장을 사갈 거예요. (eoduwojigi jeone jangeul sagal geoyeyo)
Here, “dark” is described using the adjective 어두워지다 (to become dark), and “before” is expressed with just 전에.
Now, let’s address some frequently asked questions about 기 전에 grammar:
Q1: Can I use 기 전에 with future tense verbs?
Yes, 기 전에 can be used with future tense verbs. It indicates that the action will be completed before the specified time or event.
Q2: How does 기 전에 differ from 후에 (hooae)?
기 전에 and 후에 both express the sequential relationship of events, but 기 전에 refers to an action happening before a specific event, while 후에 refers to an action happening after a certain time.
Q3: Can 기 전에 be used with past tense verbs?
Yes, 기 전에 can be used with past tense verbs. It indicates that the action occurred before a specific point in the past.
Q4: Are there any other grammar constructions to express “before” in Korean?
Yes, apart from 기 전에, you can use the adverbs “이전에” (ijeone) or “앞서” (apseo) to convey a similar meaning of “before.”
In conclusion, 기 전에 is a fundamental grammar construction in Korean that expresses actions or states occurring before a certain point in time. By understanding its structure and usage, you can effectively communicate in Korean, conveying the correct temporal relationship between events. Remember to practice using 기 전에 in various contexts to solidify your understanding of this essential grammar point.
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